Children do not develop in a vacuum but in the context of family, neighborhood, community, country and the world. Children receive the influence of their parents, siblings and other relatives; friends and colleagues; other adults with whom they come into contact, and school, church, and groups of which they are part. They are influenced by the media; by community and national leaders, by the culture in which they are growing and even things that are happening in the world. Children are partly a product of social influences.
Family and socialization
The role of the family
We can describe the family as any group of people united by the bonds of marriage, blood, adoption or any expressive sexual relationship, that (1) people share a commitment to an intimate and interpersonal relationship, (2) the members consider their identity as important to the group attached mode, and (3) the group has a distinct identity.
Competition paternal family atmosphere
Not all parents have a positive influence on their children, nor are able to create a positive family environment and healthy in which children can grow. Psychological adjustment of parents, parenting style and quality of their marriage are factors that affect emotional maturity, social competence and cognitive development of children.
Psychological adjustment of parents
When parents expose children to high levels of anger, the result is a high emotionality and behavioral reactivity by children.
Psychologically healthy parents are more likely to have a positive effect on the development of their children.
The quality of the marital relationship also contributes to the adjustment and development of children and influences behavioral problems they present in a broad age range.
Families with a single parent
Children growing up in single-parent families, especially those whose mothers never married, are significantly more likely to live below the poverty line. Also more likely, compared with children living with both biological parents, have poor school performance, repeat a grade or been expelled. In addition, your chance to show emotional or behavioral problems is also higher. The most common health problems are accidents, injuries and poisoning.
The development of friendship with peers is one of the most important aspects of social development of children. In the process of psychosocial development, all normal children go through four stages:
- Socialization: The infant and prenatal stage of development in which the interests, pleasures and satisfactions of children are themselves. At this stage they may want the company of others, but playing alone beside them and not with them.
- Heterosociality child: Between 2 and 7 years children seek the company of others, regardless of sex.
- Homosociality: Between 8 and 12 years, while in elementary school, prefer to play with other children of the same sex, but not for sexual purposes, but for friendship and companionship.
- Heterosociality adolescent and adult: 13 years on, or in adolescent and adult stages of psychosocial development, when pleasures, friendships and individual company found in people of both sexes. The adolescent boys and girls begin to form pairs, most start dating.
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Social cognition is the ability to understand social relations. In children is the ability to understand others, their thoughts, their emotions, their social behavior and in general, their point of view.
You need to know what other people think and feel in order to understand and get along with them.
Below are presented the five stages of development of Spelman:
Undifferentiated egocentric stage (0 to 6 years old). Until about los6 years, children can not make a clear distinction between their own interpretation of a social situation and point of view of others; they cannot understand that their perception may be incorrect.
Acquisition stage differentiated or subjective perspective (6 to 8 years). Children become aware that others may have a different social perspective, but find it difficult to understand the reasons for their view.
Stage of self-reflective thought or acquisition of a reciprocal perspective (8 to 10 years). The child develops a reciprocal consciousness, he realizes that others have a different view from yours and that they also realize that he has his own point of view.
Stage acquisition of a mutual perspective or a third person (from 10 to 12 years). Children can see their own perspective, the perspective of their partner and also take the perspective of a neutral third person.
Acquisition stage depth and perspective to social (from adolescence to adulthood). Young people recognize that there is a group perspective, a view reflected in a social system.
Gender refers to our biological, male or female.
Gender roles are the outward expressions of masculinity or femininity in social settings; the way we act and think like men and women are our sexual roles.
Sex roles are shaped by three important biological, cognitive and environmental influences.
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Influences on gender roles
- Biological. If an egg is fertilized by a sperm carrying an X chromosome, a woman will conceive, but if it is fertilized by a sperm carrying a Y chromosome, a man conceive. The chromosomal combination is the initial factor that controls the development of the genre. The development of the genre also is influenced by sex hormones. Testosterone is the male hormone secreted by the testes, while estrogen is the female hormone secreted by the ovaries.
- The cognitive theory suggests that sex – role identity originates in the child cognitively assigned gender at birth and subsequently accepted by him or her as it grows. At the time of birth gender assignment is mainly based on the genital examination. This allocation gender influences everything that happens next.
- The environmental reason differently. In his view, a child learns the sexual conduct described in the same way they learn any other conduct: a combination of rewards and punishments, indoctrination and observation and imitation of others. Give children toys specific genre has a considerable influence on vocational choices. Those toys children tend to be scientists, astronauts and football players, and girls to be nurses, teachers or flight attendants.
The most important initial investigation was made regarding Piaget, who highlighted the development of moral judgment as a gradual cognitive process, stimulated by the growing social relations of children as they grow.
The work of Piaget unfolds in four sections. The first section analyzes the attitudes of children to the rules of the game when they play marbles. The second and third report the results to tell children stories that require them to make moral judgments on the basis of the information provided. The last section you check their findings in relation to social psychology.
The moral judgment is the knowledge of good and evil.
Moral motivation is the strength of the desire to do the right thing, the intensity of feelings about doing the right thing. Another facet, moral inhibition, is the force of desire or feeling of doing what is wrong. Moral behavior depends on the motivation and positive moral force inhibitions against doing wrong.
It is necessary that parents and other caregivers encourage children to accept their responsibilities for faults and yet to feel pride in their honesty. Moreover, adults can promote the development of auto evolutional feelings through reasoning integrate thought and action of children. Punishment can teach the fear of doing something wrong, but the reasoning can help children to want to do the right thing because they feel good about themselves.